Saturday, January 12, 2013

The Nursing Home A Haven for the Elderly

The Nursing Home: A Nice Place for the Elderly

A.) Security
2.)Lost faculties (No need to drive)
3.)Away from con-artists
B.) Activities
1.)Entertainment/Songs (Brownies example)
2.)Activities/Crafts (Beta Club example)
3.)People of similar age
C.)Health Care
1.)Takes stress off of the family
2.)Help with prescriptions and medicine
3.)In case of emergency...

The Nursing Home: A Haven for the Elderly

Today's nursing homes are excellent environments for our elderly. These establishments provide health care, entertainment, security, and above all, a home for over 1,000,000 American citizens over age 70. There is no better place for an individual who is slowly losing his or her faculties. During one's "golden years," one should not have to worry about daily chores like washing the dishes or mowing the lawn. One should be able to relax and enjoy life. Nursing homes give the elderly a chance to do just that.

Security is a primary focus in most nursing homes. Curfews exist to insure the safety and protection of the residents. Also, busses take the senior citizens to places of common interest, such as the grocery store and local shopping malls. This alleviates the everyday stress of driving for those residents who are losing some of their basic faculties, and creates a safer driving environment for everyone. In addition, these older citizens are protected from those con-artists who prey deliberately on the elderly.

Nursing homes are full of entertainment and activities. I recall visiting a local nursing home with my second grade Brownie troop. We sang songs and made crafts with the residents. It was an enjoyable experience for everyone. Just last year, I went with my high school's Beta Club to a nearby nursing home where we held a Valentine's Day party with cake and ice cream for all of the residents. They really enjoyed our company. Aside from outside visitors, residents have the opportunity to make new friends within the home itself. Since everyone is generally the same age, most have a great deal in common and get along well with their 'neighbors.'

Of course, the primary purpose of today's nursing homes is health care. Family members can rest assured that their older loved ones are taken care of, day and night. This removes a great stress from the family of an elderly person who can no longer care for him or herself. The facility helps residents with their prescriptions and medicines. Nursing homes are usually located near hospitals to ensure quick treatment. And in case of an emergency, trained professionals are on site.

What a multipurpose establishment! Security, entertainment, and health care. These days, there is no better place for our elderly. It is obviously the best choice for those senior citizens who desire a low-stress, yet highly entertaining atmosphere. Honestly, after fifty-plus years working at a full-time job, do you really think you'll want to get out the mower?

The Comparative Abundance Of The Elements



· There are 92 naturally occurring elements, only 17 of them make up 99.5% of the earth's crust (including oceans and atmosphere).
· In living things (plants, animals, people) the six most abundant elements are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur.
· The universe is dominated by the elements hydrogen (83%) and helium (16%)

1. The Crust

The outside of the earth is a thin crust which is approximately 20 to 40km thick. The crust is a formation of dips and hollows which are filled with water to form the oceans and seas. On top of the earth's crust is an atmosphere, this is a thin layer of gases, 95% of these gases are within the first 20km of the earth's surface. Of the 17 elements that make up 99.5%, the most abundant of these are Oxygen 49.2%, Silicon 25%, and Aluminum 7.5%. Then the next most abundant elements are Iron 4.7%, Calcium 3.4%, Sodium 2.6%, Potassium 2.4%, Magnesium 1.9%, Hydrogen 0.9%, titanium 0.6%, Chlorine 0.2%, Phosphorus Manganese and Carbon are all 0.1%, Sulfur 0.05% Barium 0.04%, Nitrogen 0.03% and the rest of the elements on the periodic table take up about 0.5%.
The elements of the crust are graphed below, but only ones that are the most abundant due to the fact that the abundance of the other elements of the crust are too low to graph accurately on one graph.
Almost all elements are found as compounds, however Oxygen, Nitrogen, and to a lesser extent sulfur, gold, silver and platinum are the only elements which can be found in almost there raw sate. The atmosphere contains Oxygen and nitrogen, but it only contains a small portion of the earth's oxygen, this is because most of the world's oxygen is found in water, oxides of metals, and as silicates. Common soils and clays are silicates.

2. Living Things
In living things (plants, animals, people) the six most abundant elements are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur (known as CHONPS). Most compounds in living matter are radically complex, each molecule could contain hundreds or thousand's of atoms. Carbohydrates and fats are compounds which contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen only. Proteins are also compounds and they contain nitrogen, sulfur and occasionally phosphorus. Living matter cannot live on these six elements alone; even though they make up 99% of the mass, they also need some compounds of other elements such as calcium, potassium, sodium, magnesium, iron, zinc, fluorine and others. These elements are required as compounds so that livings things can use them.

3. The Universe

The universe is dominated by the elements hydrogen 83%, and helium 16%. Other elements in the universe are oxygen 0.1%, carbon 0.03%, nitrogen 0.01%, silicon magnesium and neon are all about 0.003% of the elements in the universe. The abundance of hydrogen and helium in this cosmic distribution of the elements, proves all the elements were formed by nuclear fusion in the stars, for example the Sun. Hydrogen is a basic material for which the other elements are gradually built.

By Derrick Deacon

Is Salt really harmful

As we know, salt is the most useful resource found on earth. In Ancient Rome, salt was used as part of the salary to the soldiers. From this, we can see that salt was as valuable as gold in the past.
In our daily life, besides making nutritious food more palatable, salt is very useful in making bakery products, canned and frozen foods. Salt is a good preservative that retards the growth of micro-organisms to make food storage possible for a long period of timie before refrigeration.
Recently, an opinion that is harmful to our health was raised by Dr. Arthur Hull Hayes, Jr,. former comissioner of the U.S. Food and Drug Admistration in 1981. The American Heart Dissociation, the American Medical Association also joined the low-salt appeal. They believe that sodium salt is connected with heart disease, circulator disorder, stroke and even early death.
By many doctors and researchers are now beginning to feel that salt has gone too far. At the University of Alabama, a short-term research has been done on 150 people on the effect of the intake of salt related to high blood pressure. Result shows that those with normal blood pressure experience no change at all when placed in a extremely low salt diet, or later when salt was introduced, Of the hypertensive subjects, half of those on the low salt diet did experience a drop in blood pressure, which returned to its previous leel when salt was introduced.
Of course, these are other researcherswhgich tend to support the findings. A small Indiana study showed that when normal individuals took large amount of salt, the bolld pressure did not consistenly rise into the hypertensive range. Also, study in Israel showed that a low-calorie diet could reduce blood pressure without changing salt consumption. After viewing research statistics, we should know that salt is not exactly harmful to us. In fact, our bodies have a continual need for salt because our bodies need sodium and chloride ions each with a different task.
Chloride maintains the balance of water in cells and its environment. It also plays a part of digestion. Sodium assists in regulating the volumn of blood and blood pressure. Also, it facilitates the transmission of nerve impulses and is necessary for heart and muscle contraction. Without this, our bodies could not function properly. On our diets, how much salt is too much?? Medical experts agrees with the daily intake of salt for normal person should be around 4 to 10 grams a day. But those with kidney problem may have to limit dietary salt, if their doctor advises.
The cause of hypertension consists of a number of factors. Such as deficiencies in calcium, potassium and obesity. In conclusion, salt restriction may harm more people than it helps. Unless your doctor has proven that you have a salt related health problem, there is no reason to give salt up!!


Dmitrii Ivanovich Mendelev predicts the existance and properties of the element
after zinc in the periodic table. He Gives it the name "eka aluminium".

Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran discovers gallium.
Its properties closely match those predicted by Mendelev.

Gallium, atomic number 31, is very similar to aluminum in its chemical
properties. It does not dissolve in nitric acid because of the protective film of
gallium oxide that is formed over the surface by the action of the acid. Gallium
does however dissolve in other acids, and alkalies.

Gallium was discovered (1875) by Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran, who observed
its principal spectral lines while examining material seperated from zinc blende.
Soon after he isolated the metal studied its properties, which coincided those that
Dmitrii Ivanovich Mendelev had predicted a few years earlier for eka-aluminium, the
then undiscovered element lying between aluminum and indium in his periodic table.

Though widely distributed at the Earth's surface, gallium does not occor
free or concentrated in independant minerals, except for gallite. It is extracted as
a by-product from zinc blende, iron pyrites, bauxite, and germanite.

Silvery white and soft enough to be cut with a knife, gallium takes on a bluish
tinge because of superficial oxidation. Unusual for its low melting point
( about 30 degrees C, 86 degrees F ), gallium also expands upon solidification and
supercools readily, remaining a liquid at temperatures as low as 0 degrees C ( 32 degrees F ).

Gallium has the longest usefull liquid range of any element. The liquid metal
clings to glass and similar surfaces. The crystal structure of gallium is orthorhombic.
Natural gallium consists of a mixture of two stable isotopes: gallium-69 ( 60.4 percent )
and gallium-71 (39.6 percent ).

Somewhat similar to aluminum chemically, gallium slowly oxidizes in moist air
until a protective film forms, and it becomes passive in cold nitric acid.

Gallium has been considered as a possible heat-exchange medium in nuclear reactors,
although it has a high neutron cross section. Radioactive gallium-72 shows some promise
in the study of bone cancer; a compound of this isotope is absorbed by the cancerous
portion of the bone.

The most common use of gallium is in a gallium scan. Gallium scans are often used
to diagnose and follow the progression of tumors or infections. Gallium scans can also be
used to evaluate the heart, lungs, or any other organ that may be involved with inflammatory

A gallium scan usually requires two visits to the Nuclear Medicine Department.
On the first day you recieve an injection in a vein in your arm, you will then be scheduled
to return beetween 2 and 5 days later, depending on your diagnosis. Your initial scan can
take several hours, while you lay on a stretcher, or imaging table, and a camera is positioned
above you or below you, taking pictures as it moves slowely along the length of your body.
No special preperation must be taken before the scan, and the gallium is usually excreted
through the bowel.

drinking and driving offenses

"DRINKING AND DRIVING OFFENCES" My essay is on "Drinking and Driving Offences". In my essay I will tell you the various kinds of drinking and driving offences, the penalties,and the defences you can make if you are caught drinking and driving. Let me tell you about the different offences. There are six offences in drinking and driving. They are "driving while impaired", "Having care and control of a vehicle while impaired", "Driving while exceeding 80 m.g.", "Having care and control of a vehicle while exceeding 80 m.g.", "Refusing to give a breath sample", and "refusing to submit to a roadside screen test. These are all Criminal Code Offences. Now lets talk about the penalties of drinking and driving. The sentence for "refusing to give a breath sample" is usually higher than either of the "exceeding 80 m.g." offences. Consequently it is usually easier in the long run for you to give a breath sample if asked. If, for example you are convicted of "Refusing ato give a breath sample" for the first time, but was earlier convicted of "Driving while impaired", your conviction for "Refusing" will count as a second conviction, not a first,and will receive the stiffer penalty for second offences. For the first offence here is the penalty and the defences you can make. Driving a vehicle while your ability to drive is impaired by alcohol or drugs is one of the offences. Evidence of your condition can be used to convict you. This can include evidence of your general conduct, speech, ability to walk a straight line or pick up objects. The penalty of the first offences is a fine of $50.00 to $2000.00 and/or imprisonment of up to six months, and automatic suspension of licence for 3 months. The second offence penalty is imprisonment for 14 days to 1 year and automatic suspension of licence for 6 months. The third offence penalty is imprisonment 2 or 3 months to 2 years (or more) and automatic suspension of licence for six months. These penalties are the same for the following offences. "Having Care and Control of a Motor Vehicle while Impaired" is another offence. Having care and control of a vehicle does not require that you be driving it. Occupying the driver's seat, even if you did not have the keys, is sufficient. Walking towards the car with the keys could be suffi- cient. Some defences are you were not impaired, or you did not have care and control because you were not in the driver's seat, did not have the keys,etc. It is not a defence that you registered below 80 m.g. on the breath-

ayzer test. Having care and control depends on all circumstances. "Driving While Exceeding 80 m.g. is the next offence. Driving a vehicle, having consumed alcohol in such a quantity that the proportion of alcohol in your blood exceeds 80 miligrams of alcohol in 100 mililitres of blood. Some defences are the test was administered improperly, or

discovery of the electron

The Discovery Of The Electron

The electron was discovered in 1895 by J.J. Thomson in the
form of cathode rays, and was the first elementary particle to be
identified. The electron is the lightest known particle which
possesses an electric charge. Its rest mass is Me <approximately
equal> 9.1 x 10 -28 g, about 1/1836 of the mass of the proton or

The charge of the electron is -e = -4.8 x 10^-10 esu <elec
trostatic unit). The sign of the electron's charge is negative by
convention, and that of the equally charged proton is positive.
This is somewhat a unfortunate convention, because the flow of
electrons in a conductor is opposite to the conventional direc
tion of the current.

The most accurate direct measurement of e is the oil drop
experiment conducted by R.A. Milikan in 1909. In this experiment,
the charges of droplets of oil in air are measured by finding the
electric field which balances each drop against its weight. The
weight of each drop is determined by observing its rate of free
fall through the air, and using Stokes' formula for the viscous
drag on a slowly moving sphere. The charges thus measured are
integral multiples of e.

Electrons are emitted in radioactivity <as beta rays> and in
many other decay processes. The electron itself is completely
stable. Electrons contribute the bulk to ordinary matter; the
volume of an atom is nearly all occupied by the cloud of elec
trons surrounding the nucleus, which occupies only about 10^-13
of the atom's volume. The chemical properties of ordinary matter are
determined by the electron cloud.

The electron obeys the Fermi-Dirac statistics, and for this
reason is often called a fermion. One of the primary attributes
of matter, impenetrability, results from the fact that the elec
tron, being a fermion, obeys the Pauli exclusion principle.

The electron is the lightest of a family of elementary
particles, the leptons. The other known charged leptons are the
muon and the tau. These three particles differ only in mass;
they have the same spin, charge, strong interactions, and weak
interactions. In a weak interaction a charged lepton is either
unchanged or changed into and uncharged lepton, that is a neutri
no. In the latter case, each charged lepton is seen to change
only into the corresponding neutrino.

The electron has magnetic properties by virtue of (1) its
orbital motion about the nucleus of its parent atom and (2) its
rotation about its own axis. The magnetic properties are best
described through the magnetic dipole movement associated with 1
and 2. The classical analog of the orbital magnetic dipole moment
of a small current-carrying circuit. The electron spin magnetic
dipole moment may be thought of as arising from the circulation
of charge, that is, a current, about the electron axis; but a
classical analog to this moment has much less meaning than that
to the orbital magnetic dipole moment. The magnetic moments of
the electrons in the atoms that make up a solid give rise to the
bulk magnetism of the solid.

Diet and Cancer What is the Link

Diet and Cancer... What is the Link?

Today we know that too much of a certain type of foods can have
harmful effects on our health and well-being and we are learning that
diseases such as cancer are caused in part by our dietary choices.
In the 1950's scientists discovered relationship between diet and
coronary heart disease, the nations number one killer. In the last 15 year a
link between cancer and diet has been discovered by scientists.
The National Academy of Sciences (NAS), an organization of the
nation's foremost scientists found evidence so persuasive that in their
landmark report Diet, Nutrition and Cancer of 1982 they insisted Americans
to begin changing their diets to reduce their risk of developing cancer. The
results of the study were supported by later research done by NAS, the
Surgeon General, Department of Agriculture and Health and Human
Services, and the National Institute of Health.
Based mainly on the study by NAS done in 1982, the American
Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) devised a guideline with four parts to
help lower people's risk of developing cancer. The guidelines have been
updated since then to reflect recent research on the link.

The AICR guidelines are:
1. Reduce the intake of total dietary fat to a level of no more than 30%
of total calories and, in particular, reduce the intake of saturated fat to less
than 10% of total calories.
2. Increase the consumption of fruits, vegetables and whole grains.
3. Consume salt-cured, salt-pickled and smoked foods only in
4. Drink alcoholic beverages only in moderation, if at all.*

Most cancers start when the body is exposed to a carcinogen, a
cancer-causing substance that is found everywhere in our environment for
example in sunlight. When the body is exposed to this substance it can
usually destroy the carcinogen without malignant effects. If any of the
substance eludes the body's defense system it can alter a cell's genes to make
it become a cancerous cell.
Cancer doesn't suddenly appear, it develops through gradual stages of
which the initial stages can be reversed. The foods we eat can either increase
the rate of which these stages advance or help fight and prevent it from
spreading. Salt-cured and salt-pickled foods don't contain carcinogen
however they do contain another ingredient which is changed to carcinogens
while being digested. Smoked foods are a little different, they have the
carcinogen in them.
Fruits, vegetables, and whole grains should be eaten to help prevent
cancer or fight against cancer advancing through the body. Foods high in fat
which include marbled meats, baked goods such as cookies and pastries and
high-fat dairy products must be avoided. They help a cancer cell grow,
multiply and spread.
By following these guidelines will not guarantee that one will not get
cancer however, it will lower chances. Cancer is still somewhat of an
unknown disease but we do know that the foods one eats can have powerful
effects on the development of cancer. This is good news because it provides
people an opportunity to stop or prevent cancer.

Saturday, January 5, 2013

Science Fair Project Melting Ice

Science Fair Project
Melting Ice


- 3 aluminum baking pans
- water to fill each pan
- 1/2 cup of salt
- 1/2 cup of rubbing alcohol
- 1/2 cup of sand
- watch
- large freezer
- thremometor


First fill three aluminum baking pans with water and
freeze them in alarge freezer for three hours. Then get a
thremometor to get the tempature of the freezer. Then make sure
that you put them all in for the same amount of time. Label each
ofthe aluminum baking pans A and the other B and the other C.
Then check on them every half a hour to see if they are frozen
yet. Then when they turn completly into a solid,(take them
out of the freezer) pour 1/2 cup of each subtance into a seperate
baking pan. Make sure that when you pour the subtance in pour
it evenly. Then label the pan with the name of its subtance.
Then time to see which one melts first and then second and the
last one to melt. Then record how long it took each one to


The temperature at which water forms into a solid is 32 degrees Fahrenheit or 0 degrees Celsius. The temperature 32 degrees Fahrenheit or 0 degrees Celsius is called freezing point. The freezing point is decreased by about .55 degrees Celsius or 1 degree Fahrenheit for each increase of 80 atmospheres of pressure.


Any material contained here after is not
to be taken seriously on the grounds that
it was written when all of the mortal and/or normal
world should be and probably is asleep and the
author may and probably does have a distorted
interpretation and/ or perception of reality and
of the facts contained , so the material proceeding
this disclaimer does not necessarily represent the
authors views of reality, pyrite, family values, and
whatever other information he doesn't remember
he put in this report at the time of writing but still
did whether or not he believes it to be true and/ or
interesting ,which it probably isn't, weather you like it or not...

Pyrite, also known as Fools Gold is the most
common of the sulfide minerals. Pyrite is called
Fool's Gold because of it's pale brass yellow color
and glistening metallic luster, but it may be told from
gold by it's cubic, dodecahedral, and octahedral
crystals and fine grain masses. Some interesting facts
about pyrite are that it has a greenish black streak, a
rating of 6.0 to 6.5 on the mohs scale, a specific
gravity of 5.00 to 5.02 , it creates a weak electric
current when heated and in some of it's various form's
it has been used in early fire arms and fire starting
kits. It's biggest commercial use is in making sulfuric
acid but it is also important in nature for forming ore
and mineral deposits. Any questions?



Nobelium has the symbol No and is a radioactive metallic element with an atomic number of 102. Nobelium is in the actinide series being labeled as one of the transuranium elements. The element is named after Alfred Bernhard Nobel, the Swedish inventor and philanthropist.
Nobelium can be found when produced artificially in a laboratory. Discovery of the element was first claimed in 1957 by scientific groups in the United States, Great Britain, and Sweden, but the first confirmed discovery of a nobelium isotope was by a team of scientists at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory in Berkeley, California and that took place in 1958. The isotope was created by bombarding curium isotopes with carbon ions.
Chemically, the properties of nobelium are unknown, but because it is an actinide, its properties should resemble those of the rare earth elements. Isotopes with mass numbers from 250 to 259 and 262 are known. The most stable isotope, nobelium-259, has a half-life of 58 minutes. The most common isotope, nobelium-255, has a half-life of a few minutes.

Ideal gas vs a real gas

An ideal gas is a theoretical gas which perfectly fits into the equation PV= nRT . An ideal gas is different from a real gas in many ways. An ideal gases' mass can be disregarded in the equation because it has none; this is because an ideal gas is said to be a particle and particles do not have any mass. Ideal gases obtain no volume unlike real gases which obtain small volumes. Also, since ideal gas particles excerpt no attractive forces, their collisions are elastic. Real gases excerpt small attractive forces. The pressure of an ideal gas is much greater than that of a real gas since its particles lack the attractive forces which hold the particles back when they collide. Therefore, they collide with less force. The differences between ideal gases and real gases can be viewed most clearly when the pressure is high, the temperature is low, the gas particles are large, and when the gas particles excerpt strong attractive forces. Monoatomic gas molecules are much closer to ideal gases than other particles since their particles are so small. Because of the differences between ideal and real gases, Van der Waals created an equation to relate the two.

Friday, January 4, 2013



Do you often wonder what makes someone attracted to you or what makes you attracted to that other person? Sometimes you can look at the person and not even be attracted to their looks, but you feel compelled to talk to them or just contact them in any form. These urges could be induced by a compound group most commonly called "Pheromones."

Pheromones{fair'-uh-mohn} (from the Greek pher, "to carry" and horman "to stimulate") are chemicals released by organisms into the environment, where they serve as signals or messages to alter behavior in other organisms of the same species. Pheromones are a class of compounds that insects and animals produce to attract members of their own species. These compounds are secreted by the body in very small amounts but are never-the-less effective in producing instinctive behavior when detected by the nose. In insects and animals, most sexual and social behavior is controlled by pheromones.

Humans have used perfumes for thousands of years, but there is a basic difference between perfume and pheromones. Pheromones are produced by the body and usually do not smell at all pleasant, whereas perfumes are either synthesized or extracted from natural products and are employed because of their pleasant smell.

Scientific research suggests that there are human pheromones for both the male and the female. Females have a better developed sense of smell and testing indicates that they are more responsive to male pheromones than the reverse.

Research over the years has found that the male pheromones belong to a class of compounds called steroids, in particular derivatives of androstenone, which are secreted by perspiration glands on our bodies.

The compound androstenone, and a related product androstenol, are the most commonly used compounds for testing the effects of pheromones on humans. The tests usually involve getting subjects to select preferred objects from a group of objects some of which have been sprayed with pheromones. For example; statistics are taken of the use of the chairs in a dental waiting room when one of the chairs has been sprayed with pheromones. It is reported that females favor the chair marked with a male pheromones whereas males tend to avoid the chair. Usually the subjects report that they are not conscious of the smell of the pheromones, the preference shown appears to be a subtle unconscious action in most cases.

To the perfume industry, the pheromone compound frequently contains androstenone dissolved in a solvent. Also included is a masculine-like cologne that is attractive to women. Upon application the solvent will evaporate leaving the residual perfume and the androstenone. The small amount of perfume is designed to attract women consciously while the androstenone-pheromone works in the background in the unconscious way of most pheromones. Next time you are strangely attracted to a person of the opposite sex, you could think whether or not they are consciously using a pheromone.

Thursday, January 3, 2013

Lab protocols

Through trial and error my class and I have learned that screwing around and misbehaveing in lab not only results in multiple page papers, but can also be harmful, dangerous, and costly to our teacher and school.

There are many rules or "protocols" that should be followed in a lab enviroment. In this situation there are ten basic rules that must be followed at all times while participating in lab experiments. These are here for our own safety and should be followed for this reason.

The first rule is that everyone in the lab should wear eye protection. In a lab enviroment eye injury is very common. Eye protection greatly reduces this risk of injury.

The second is no horseplay. Horseplay can cause injury to yourself others and can cause damage to the laboraty.

The third rule is that you should only interact with your partner and the teacher. This will prevent distraction from your set experiment.

The fourth rule is that you should not leave your experiment unattended whether you think it is dangerous or not. This rule is completely self explanatory for safety purposes.

The fifth rule is to be extremely careful with equipment. Not only for money purposes but also for your own personal safety.

The sixth rule is to not touch anything that the teacher or the lab specifically instructs you to. Because you don't need to.

The seventh rule states that activities should only be done if they are specifically discussed in your lab. This is for safety purposes and for the liability of the school.

The eighth rule is that you are not to contaminate chemicals by using equipment in more than one substance without washing it thoroughly. Doing this can cause explosion, fire, bodily harm, poisonous gasses, or possibly death. Also do not return chemicals to the original container after they have been used.

The ninth rule is that you must read your lab handout thoroughly before experimenting in a lab environment. It is a good idea to ask any necessary pertinent questions prior to partaking in your lab. Follow directions exactly. This is to prevent possible harmful mistakes that may result in death, poisonous gasses, bodily harm , explosion , or fire.

Last but not least the tenth rule is that before taking leave of the laboratory environment set forth by the laboratory director and our prestigous school. You should thoroughly clean to your best ability the above stated area. This is to prevent possible chemical burns, toxic gasses, highly flammable substances, and acids from forming on countertops. It also helps to keep the lab environment sightly to the eyes.

I am truly sorry for any disturbances my classmates may have caused. I also hope I have redeamed myself by writing this paper and herefore promising I will "try " to be less disruptive in the future.


Becoming a chemist takes a lot of hard work and discipline. One very importan
aspect of being a chemist is English, Comunication is of the utter most importance
(Murphy). As well as having good communication skills, you also need a lot of patience.
However, there are many other qualities you will need such as an excellent learning ability
and mathematical skills. You will also need to be able to preceive concepts or objects.
Once you get into college you need to know what kind of degree to get in order to have a
fulfilling and successful career. For most entry level jobs a BS degree is sufficient.
However, for a college teaching job a Ph.D. is required (Choices).
After obtaining a degree, your next step would be to find a job. According to
Jerry Murphy, if you want an easy way into the chemistry field you need to know someone
already in that occupation. For the most part in Missouri, employment is increasing.
Nevertheless, if you are not restricted to finding a job in Missouri, in the United States
a whole employment is expected to increase 21% (Choices).
After finding a job in the chemistry field that you will enjoy another quesiton arises,
money. On hte average if you begin working at a entry level job witha bachelors
degree your salary will be somewhere around $24,000 a year. If you start work with a
masters degree you can expect about $32,000 and with a Ph.D. as mcuh as $60,000 ("Chemists")
Research and development is the subcareer most chemist choose. In this subfield
your primary goal would be to look for and use information about chemicals ("Chemists").
A chemists also spends a considerable amount of time in an office where
he/she stores information or reports about research he/she has made. There are two
different types of research basic research and applied research. In basic research a
chemists studies the qualities and what makes up matter. In applied chemistry a chemist
uses information obtained from basic research and puts it to practical use ("Chemists").
Chemistry includes many other subfields some of these are analytical chemistry, organic
chemistry, and physical chemistry. Analytical chemists ascertain the nature, structure, and
composition of a substance. Organic chemistry involves orgainc substances. Aphysical
chemist, however, studies the attributes of atoms and molecules. Also they study why
and how chemical reactions occur (Choices).
After researching this career thoroughly I have concluded that this occupation,
even though it is not my first choice, would be a good career to pursue. According to the
information I have obtained employment should increse over the next couple of years
allowing for a fairly lucrative life if I obtain a good degree. I will attempt to
pursue this career even though my English skills are lacking.



One of the greatest thinkers of all time was Aristotle-322 BC, the Ancient Greek philosopher. He has practically influenced every area of present day thinking. His main focal points were the natural and social sciences. In Stagira, a town on the northwest coast of the Aegean Sea, in the year of 384 BC Aristotle was introduced to the world. He grew up a wealthy boy. His father was friends with the noble king of Macedonia, and as a young man he spent the majority of his time at the Macedonian court. At the age of seventeen, he was sent away to study in Athens. It was there that he transformed to a disciple of Plato. Over time, Aristotle became the "mind of the school". Later in his life, he followed his mentor and became a teacher in a school on the coast of Asia minor. Aristotle was the professor of young prince Alexander, who went on to become the ruler Alexander the Great.
Aristotle was the first known person to make major advances in the fields of logic, physical works( such as physics, meteorologists, ect.) , psychological works, and natural history( modern day biology). His most famous studies are in the field of philosophical works. His studies play an important role in the early history of chemistry. Aristotle was the first person to propose the idea of atoms matter and other grand ideas.
Aristotle made the first major advances in the field of philosophy of nature. He saw the universe as lying between two scales: form without matter and is at one end and matter without form is at the other end. One the most important aspects of Aristotle's philosophy was the development of potentiality to actuality. That can be explained as something possibility in terms of its accuracy. The actual state compare to the potential state is demonstrated in terms of the causes which act on things. The four causes include material cause, efficient cause, formal cause, and final cause. First the material cause is also defined as the elements out of which matter is created. The way in which matter is created is known as efficient cause. Formal cause is called the expression of what the material actually is . The last cause, appropriately named final cause, is for the end of the substance.
An example, actual compared to potential, can be as simple as bronze statue. The material cause is plainly the bronze. Its efficient cause is the sculptor . The formal cause is the idea of the statue, as the sculptor envisions it . The final cause is the perfection of the statue . These four stages of creation through termination exist throughout nature. Aristotle's vision of early chemistry created a strong foundation for the chemists of today .

Works Cited

Aristotle (Internet Encylopedia of Philosophy). (Online) Available

Aristotle's Page. (Online) Available

Compton's Interactive Encyclopedia. 1995 Compton's NewMedia, Inc.

Wednesday, January 2, 2013

The Classification and Formation of Crystals



My purpose of this experiment is to find out how crystals are formed and how they are classified. For a long time, I've been interested in crystals, so I've decided this experiment would be perfect for me!


The study of the growth, shape, and geometric characteristics of crystals is called crystallography. When the conditions are right, each chemical element and compound can crystallize in a definite and characteristic form.

Thirty-two classes of crystals are theoretically possible, almost all common minerals fall into one of about twelve classes, and some classes have never been seen. The thirty-two classes are grouped into six crystal systems, based on the length and position of the crystal axes. Crystal axes are imaginary lines passing through the center of the crystals. Minerals in each system share certain proportions and crystal form and many important optical properties.

The six crystal systems are very important to a mineralogists and geologists; specification of the system is necessary in the description of each crystal system.


This system comprises crystals with three axes, all perpendicular to one another and all have equal length.


This system comprises crystals with three axes, all perpendicular to one another; but only two are equal in length.


This system comprises crystals with three mutually perpendicular axes, all of different lengths.


This system comprises crystals with three axes, all unequal in length, two o which are not perpendicular to another, but both of which are perpendicular to the third.


This system comprises crystals with three axes, all unequal in length and is not perpendicular to one another.


This system comprises crystals with four axes. Three of these axes are in a single plane, proportionally spaced, and of equal length. The fourth axis is perpendicular to the other three. Some crystallographers split the hexagonal in two, calling the seventh system trigonal or rhombohedral.

Formation of Crystals

Crystals are formed when a liquid becomes solid or when a vapor or liquid solution becomes supersaturated. Some substances tends to form seed crystal (I grew my crystals from seed crystals). If a solution like this is cooled slowly, a few seeds grow into large ones; but if it is cooled rapidly, numerous seeds form and grow only into tiny crystals. Table salt, purified at a factory by recrystallization, is composed of lots of cubed crystals, which are barely visible with the naked eye; rock salt, formed in a really long time, contains enormous crystals of the same cubed form.



My element was Thallium. It is atomic number 81. It has 81 protons and electrons and 123 neutrons. Thallium has a mass of 204.3833 atomic mass units. Its symbol is Tl. It resides in Group IIIA of the periodic table. That is the aluminum family. Thallium has a bluish color after exposure to the air. It is a very soft and malleable metal. It has an electron configuration of 1s22s23s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p64f145d106s26p1. It has 6 electron shells. It melts at 576.7 K and boils at 1730 K. It is a solid when at room temperature.

Thallium was discovered in 1861 by a British chemist and physicist. His name was Sir William Crookes. He discovered it spectroscopically in England. He isolated it. In 1862, the French chemist Claude August again isolated it. Thallium comes form the Greek word "thallos". "Thallos" meant "green twig" or "green shoot".

Thallium does not have many uses. It is used in photocells because of the electrical conductivity of thallium sulphide. Thallium was originally used to help treat ringworm and many other skin infections. It was then limited because of the narrow margin between the benefits and its health risks. Thallium bromide-iodide crystals are still used as infrared detectors. Thallium sulphate used to be widely used as a pesticide and an ant killer. It was odorless and tasteless and worked well, but it was found to be too toxic. Thallium slats which burn with a bright green flame are used in flares and rockets. Thallium is the 60th most abundant element in the Earth's crust. There are 3.6 parts of Thallium in every million parts of the Earth's crust. Thallium compounds are extremely toxic. The negative effects are cumulative and can be taken in through the skin. Poisoning from Thallium takes several days to effect you and when it does, it hits the nervous system. Thallium should only be handled by trained professionals with the right equipment and safety precautions.

Thallium deposits are occasionally found in Sweden and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. It is also extracted from the mud produced in lead chambers that are used in the manufacturing of sulfuric acid. Thallium is also used in Thallium high-Tc superconductors. Just recently, Thallium is beginning to be used to visualize the reduced flow of blood into the heart muscle. It is injected into the veins and then a camera records the thallium penetration and shows the areas of the reduced flow of blood.

Thallium is an element that most people have never heard of before, but they will in the future. If the heart exams prove to be beneficial, it should become more popular. Thallium is very dangerous though. It is not very common though and therefore should not be worried about.


Nalin Balan
NUCL 200
Paper due 02/07/97


Atomic Number: 43
Atomic Symbol: Tc
Atomic Weight: (97)
Electron Configuration: -18-13-2

History, Properties and Uses:

(Gr. technetos, artificial) Element 43 was predicted on the basis of the periodi
c table,
and was erroneously reported as having been discovered in 1925, at which
time it was
named masurium. The element was actually discovered by Perrier and Segre
in Italy in
1937. It was found in a sample of molybdenum, which was bombarded by deut
erons in the Berkeley cyclotron, and which E. Lawrence sent to these investigators
Technetium was the first element to be produced artificially. Since its d
searches for the element in terrestrial material have been made without s
uccess. If it
does exist, the concentration must be very small. Technetium has been fou
nd in the
spectrum of S-, M-, and N-type stars, and its resence in stellar matter i
s leading to
new theories of the production of heavy elements in the stars. Nineteen i
sotopes of
technetium, with atomic masses ranging from 90 to 108, are known. 97Tc ha
s a half-life of 2.6 x 10^6 years. 98Tc has a half-life of 4.2 x 10^6 years. The isomer
ic isotope
95mTc, with a half-life of 61 days, is useful for tracer work, as it prod
uces energetic
gamma rays. Technetium metal has been produced in kilogram quantities. Th
e metal
was first prepared by passing hydrogen gas at 1100C over Tc2S7. It is now
prepared by the reduction of ammonium pertechnetate with hydrogen. Techne
tium is a
silvery-gray metal that tarnishes slowly in moist air. Until 1960, techne
tium was
available only in small amounts and the price was as high as $2800/g. It
is now
commercially available to holders of O.R.N.L. permits at a price of $60/g
. The
chemistry of technetium is said to be similar to that of rhenium. Technet
ium dissolves in
nitric acid, aqua regia, and conc. sulfuric acid, but is not soluble in h
ydrochloric acid of
any strength. The element is a remarkable corrosion inhibitor for steel.
It is reported
aerated distilled water at temperatures up to 250C. This corrrosion prote
ction is
limited to closed systems, since technetium is radioative and must be con
fined. 98Tc
has a specific activity of 6.2 x 10^8 Bq/g. Activity of this level must n
ot be allowed to
spread. 99Tc is a contamination hazard and should be handled in a glove b
ox. The metal
is an excellent superconductor at 11K and below.

Source: CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 1913-1995. David R. Lide, Editor
in Chief. Author:
C.R. Hammond

Science Fossil

The Fossilized Story of Mr. Allosaurus

As the mud starts to surround me I am no longer able to breathe. I catch my last gasp of air and feel a few last raindrops fall on my head. I say goodbye to my Earth and my land. My mouth and lungs fill with mud that travels throughout my system. I am blinded by the wet black soil that has been downpoured on so hard that it has become deadly. I am frightened. Slowly inch by inch I sink farther and deeper in the mud. My life will come to an end soon, and I, the last remaining creature of my kind, will become extinct. I struggle and fight to survive, but the downcoming mud has to great of a force. I feel the mud take the place of my heart, and I die. I feel dazed and confused. I always thought I would die of starvation, not from actually trying to catch my prey.
For thousands of years I have lived underground. I have become a petrified fossil. All the flesh and skin has either rotted away, or was eaten by bugs and other things underground. All that remains of me are my bones. I became petrified, because when I was burried under the ground all those years the groundwater dissolved all my bones. They were then replaced, a molecule at a time, by the minerals in the water. This long process involved all these tingly sensations. I felt odd for the longest time, but now I'm a new me!
About 900 years ago I received company from someone up above. His name is Mr. Wolly Mammoth. Wolly died because of a volcanic eruption, and was trapped in the burning lava. He's my best buddy and I was so glad he decided to come join me. We always talk about what we think goes on above us. Sometimes the Earth rumbles in a strange vibration. Wolly and I call these vibrations Earth shakes.
100,000 years later and my friend Wolly has left me. He was dug up and carried away by these "humans." I guess this is what these creatures are called. I've heard echoes in the ground from younger fossils that the "humans" killed them and buried them. One night me and Wolly were talking about these humans coming a digging us up one day and putting us in their museums. It was our dream and today Wolly's dream came true. I heard that the humans were coming back tomorrow to dig some more. I hope my dream will also be fullfilled.
It is my lucky day! In the words of Pinnochio "dreams really do come true." I heard that one from the fossil of the whale that ate Pinnochio. I was put in The Museum Of Science And Industry in Illinois. And guess what, Wolly was there, too. We were hung from the ceiling by wires, so we went fall, for everyone to see. I just love being a fossil!

Do Cleaning Chemicals Clean as Well After they have been froz

The researcher is trying to determine whether or not cleaning materials will clean as well if they have been frozen solid and subsequently thawed out until they have returned to a liquid state of matter.
The researcher will use Dial Antibacterial Kitchen Cleaner, Clorox Bleach, and Parson's Ammonia, applied to simple bacon grease, to determine which chemical is least affected by the glaciation.

The researcher feels that the process of glaciation will degrade the ability of these three household cleaning chemicals to breakdown the most common kitchen cleaning problem - grease.
For example, the freezing, thawing, and then freezing again of ice cream puts the substance through the freezing process. The result is a separation of heavy and light substances which breaks down the food. The researcher feels that the same end result may happen with the cleaning materials.

Test Concept:
In order to determine weather the glaciation process affected the cleaning chemicals, it is first important to establish its potency prior to freezing. Accordingly, two test sets were created by the researcher. The purpose of the test was to determine how well the chemicals could break down household grease before and after the substances were frozen. The first test set would focus on unfrozen chemicals, while the second was set up for previously frozen chemicals.

The Test:
To start the experiment the researcher fried four pieces of bacon until there was enough grease in the skillet to perform the test. He then put a quarter teaspoon of the grease onto two nine by thirteen casserole dishes. Each casserole dish was set up for three frozen and three unfrozen chemical cleaners. A measured amount of cleaner (both frozen and unfrozen) was added to each spot of grease. After approximately two minutes of breaking down the grease, the dishes were raised to a uniform height at one end and the broken down grease was allowed to run. By measuring how far the grease ran, the researcher could then determine how much the cleaner broke down and therefore which cleaner was affected by the glaciation.

The resources for this experiment were acquired from the labels of the chemicals. Research was also done to try and find information about Chlorine in the Clorox Bleach but ended unsuccessfully. There was also research done to find out about the reason the 409 degreaser performed so poorly.

The researcher has concluded that the previously frozen chemicals performed just as well if not better than the unfrozen chemicals. See charts one and two for details o

Tuesday, January 1, 2013

The Quicksilver

The Quicksilver
Chemistry I
October 25, 1996

One day an ancient alchemist was sitting at his and noticed a strange silvery liquid-like metal. He called several of his colleagues over to admire it. It was passed down through the years, this chemical reaction, that formed this "Quicksilver" as the alchemists called it. One day a French chemist Antoine Laurent Lavoisier tested and proclaimed it a metal. And he named it Mercury (Hg). With strong controversy from scientists around the world, Lavoisier was never given credit until after his death.. During the late nineteenth century and early twentieth is when a significant amount of work went into developing a good use to mercury- thermometers. Before people had been developing thermometers but they were not as accurate as the ones produced around 1900.
In the later twentieth century people developed a increasing "need" for pure gold and silver. European and American scientists developed a new advanced way for this- amalgams. Amalgams are alloys of mercury usually used to extract elements from there various ores. Then, once the common metal is extracted mercury is then separated through distillation.
Without mercury our world would be much different. We would have different, if any, ways of determining temperature. Mercury is also used in cleaning modern day swimming pools as "Mercury Vapor lamps" for sterilization. Mercury can be used in both reconstructing and destroying life in water ways depending upon the attention people give it. We would have no fast, economical ways of cleaning large pools; no fast, economical way of controlling river clean-ups. Life in our modern day households would be much, much colder because we would have no way of having a auto-start heater- people would have to turn on their heater manually. Yet we would also need to look at the positive side of no mercury. We would have little, if any at all, severe river life loss, therefore little need for the time and effort we spend clearing our water of mercury contamination.

The Alkanes

The alkanes are the simplest form of organic compounds. They are made up of
only Carbon atoms and Hydrogen atoms. All of the bonds are single and the number
of hydrogen atoms versus carbon atoms follows this formula: CnH2n+2 Alkanes are all
non-polar molecules so they aren't soluble in water. Here are some more facts.
-Referred to as "Saturated"
-They have
-low densities
-low melting points
-low boiling points
-Refer to "Slide 29" sheet
We couldn't find any information on who discovered them. Or on the what,
where, or when. However the first alkane that was discovered was probably methane.
Because, of course, this is the gas that cows belch.
The journal of toxology report that a 15 year old boy was stricken with
hemiparesis "resulting from acute intoxication following inhalation of butane gas."
Hemiparesis is when half of a person's body is paralyzed. Through reactions alkanes
can be transformed into chloroform. This has been shown to accumulate in lungs of
swimmers after they swim for extended periods of time.
As mentioned above chloroform can be produced which can be used for
anesthesia. Also dichloromethane, or paint stripper and 1,2-dichloroethane which is a
dry cleaning fluid. Here is a sample reaction where a halogen replaces a hydrogen.
CH4(g) + C12(g) ----> CH3Cl(g) + HCl(g)
There are many uses for alkanes, for instance: Propane is used in gas grills,
butane is used in cigarette lighters, through various reactions scientists can make paint
stripper, anesthesia or dry cleaning fluid. The Pentanes and Hexanes are also highly
flammable and make really cool explosions. Heptane, octane and nonane make up
gasoline. The "Octane Scale" on gas pumps uses a system which rates n-heptane at a
0 and isooctane at 100.
Currently propane gas is being studied to use it as a fuel for more efficient cars.
Here is the reaction when propane is oxidized. C3H8 + 2O2 ----> H2O + 3C
Technically under perfect conditions only water and carbon are given off. But I'm
sure that there would be Carbon dioxide or monoxide also.
In the anything else category, goes the cow belching money. The Environmental
protection Agency allocates $500,000 annually to do research on belching cows.

Noble Gases

The Noble Gases are the far right elements on the periodic table. On the earth they are scarce so we don¹t see much of them. They are do not react well with anything. In fact until around the 50¹s they hadn¹t found anything that they would react with any of the gases. But then someone found out that Fluorine one the of most reactive elements could form compounds with Xenon. Later they found that it could react with most of the other nobles.
Helium is one of the more scarce nobles on earth but in the universe it makes up 25% of it. Helium¹s presence was discovered by using spectral analysis to detect helium in the sun¹s spectrum. Helium is not found a lot on the earth because gravity cannot keep helium from escaping to space. Helium is found mostly in stars, where it goes through nuclear fusion with hydrogen. Most Helium comes from natural gas taps in North America. It is used in balloons and divers use it with oxygen to breath easier and to not get sick or dizzy.
Neon is an element that is lighter than air. The element is found most common in the atmosphere of the earth. It is also found in the earth¹s crust. It was discovered in 1898 by Sir Walter Ramsey and Morris W. Travers. Its uses include electric signs,lamps,and lasers.
Argon is the most abundant and most used noble on earth. It was discovered by Lord Rayleigh and by Sir Walter Ramsey in 1894. Argon makes up about 1.2 % of the earths atmosphere. It is found naturally in rock and in the air. It is used for electric light bulbs and floursent tubes. It is also used a lot in industry.
Krypton a very rare noble was discovered by Sir Walter Ramsey and by Morris W. Travers. Traces of it are found in natural gas,hot springs and volcanoes but most of it is in the atmosphere. It is used for incadesent lights and it is used in high speed photography.
Xenon is the first noble to form compounds with another element. It is very heavy and extremely rare. It was discovered by Sir Walter Ramsey and Morris W. Travers. It is found in mineral springs and in the Martian atmosphere. It is used in stroboscopes and many things to do with photography.
Radon is a very heavy radioactive gas. It was discovered by Freredich E. Dorn in 1900. It is in spring water, soil, and in some rocks. It is used to cause chemical reactions in medical procedures. Even though it helps it is seen as a major health risk because it can seep through poorly ventilated houses and contribute to cancer of the lungs.


Mercury is a metallic element that is a liquid at room temperature, it is one of the transition elements. Mercury's atomic number is 80. It is superconductive when cooled to within a few degrees of absolute zero. Mercury was once known as liquid silver or quicksilver which was studied by the alchemists. Mercury was first distinguished as an element by the French chemist Antoine Laurent Lavoisier in his experiment on the composition of air. At room temperature mercury is a shining, moving liquid that has a silvery-white color, and slightly volatile. Mercury remains a liquid over a wide temperature range. Mercury is a solid when given a pressure of 7640 atmospheres (5.8 million torrs). It dissolves in nitric or concentrated sulfuric acid but is resistant to alkalies. Mercury melts at -39C, boils at about 357C,and has a gravity of 13.5. The atomic weight of mercury is 200.59. Mercury comes in its pure form or combined with silver in small amounts. It is mostly found in the form of the sulfide.
Mercury has many uses and is a very important element. A major use of mercury is in electrical equipment such as fluorescent lamps, and mercury batteries. Mercury is used in thermometers because the change in volume for each degree of rise or fall in temperature is the same. The use of mercury in the thermometer instead of alcohol was done by Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit in 1714. It was also used in vacuum pumps, barometers, and electric rectifiers and switches. Mercury is used in a mercury-vapor lamps which are used as a source of ultraviolet rays in homes and for sterilizing water. Mercury-vapor is also used instead of steam in the boilers of some turbine engines. Mercury is sometimes used for amalgamation. Amalgamation is a metallurgical process that utilizes mercury to dissolve silver or gold to form an amalgam. This process has been largely supplanted by the cyanide process, in which gold or silver is dissolved in solutions of sodium or potassium cyanide.
Mercury is a poisonous element. Mercury is semi hazardous as a vapor and Among the many good things mercury does for people there is a flip side. in the form of its water-soluble salts. Chronic mercury poisoning, which occurs when small amounts of the metal are repeatedly ingested over long periods of time, causes irreversible brain, liver, and kidney damage.

Following a dream toward freedom

"Following a dream toward freedom"
465 words

"Following a dream toward freedom"

Freedom has always come very easily for
me. I've always had it and I've never been
without it. But as I sit here thinking I remember
all the stories that were told to me, about the
struggles we were put through to get these
freedoms. Since I am a black woman my
general knowledge of history tells me that
the struggle for freedom was extremely
great. Blacks had to endure slavery and go
through wars to achieve their freedoms.
Woman had to live in silence while the world
was run without their say. To overcome this
they created woman's suffrage and woman's
rights acts to finally allow them their
freedoms. It is an extremely triumphant feeling
to know the things they went through to give
me the luxuries I have today. But what if they
didn't? What if we were still having to fight
wars for our freedoms? I often wonder what
slavery would be like? Looking in todays
society slavery is still the same nightmare it
was then. People in South Africa and Iran
wake to this same nightmare everyday. They
have no personal rights or freedoms at all.
Everyday they live in fear for their lives. If its
not being threatened by their own government
its being threatened by the lack of food they
receive. Imagining the things they go through
everday makes me wonder about my freedoms.
Why is it that I can go to my refrigerator
whenever I want and be able to get a nice,
clean drink of water. When Meanwhile in some
foreign country some 10 year old kid, who has
the same thirst as I do has to go to a lake
where the animals bathe to get a foul, disease
infested drink. Knowing about these peoples
sufferings really makes me realize how
important and how special the freedoms that
Americans posses are. I believe everyone takes
their freedoms for granted. We are by far
granted the greatest freedoms in the
world.But we are far from perfect and
unfortunately we have our own struggles for
freedom. Ranging from racial freedoms to
religious freedoms. I believe that freedom is
the greatest thing in the world but
unfortunately there are a lot of sacrifices to
be made. Americans need to realize that
freedom is not a necessity. We don't have to
have it. Freedom is a gift. It is the most precious
gift in the world simply because it cannot be
bought in any store. It is given to you just for
being an American. My last thought on this is
that I think everyone has had and still has
there struggles with freedom. But I believe
that what doesn't kill us makes us stronger,
so the struggles we endure are worth it in the
end........Aren't they?

Flight Chemistry

Jonathan Cerreta
"Crash Course in Density"

As flight 143, a twin engine 767, was passing over Red Lake on its was to Edmonton, Canada, the left front fuel pump warning light went on. There were a few possibilities for this to happen, such as the fuel pump failing, a fuel line clogging, or a empty fuel tank. The former two were easily dealt with, since the plane could fly without one fuel pump. However, the last possibility was horrifying. After a few minutes, the second fuel pump in the left wing began to blare. It would be too much of a coincidence for two fuel pumps to independently fail, or two fuel lines to independently clog, so it was apparent that the left tank was out of fuel.
Quickly, the pilots decided that getting to Edmonton was out of the question. The nearest large airport was at Winnipeg, so they radioed ahead and changed their course. In a few minutes, all four of the fuel pumps had failed. The worst possible news, they were out of fuel. In a few more minutes the engines stopped running, and all of the high tech instruments became useless.
They realized that they could not even make it to Winnipeg. Their only chance was an abandoned to a abandoned Air Force airstrip. Unfortunately, the airstrip had been converted to a race track, complete with race cars, fences, and spectators. The 767 crash landed, and, fortunately, no one was killed.
Their were many contributing factors that made this plane run out of fuel. First of all, the computerized fuel gauge was not working, and a maintenance worker said , incorrectly, that the plane was still certified to fly. To measure the amount of fuel remaining, they use a drip stick method. They discovered that their was 7 682 liters in the tank. However, they had always measured fuel in the past as pound, while the 767 consumed fuel in kilograms. The drip sticks did not express the amount of fuel in pounds or kilograms, but in liters. It seems to be a simple matter of conversion to arrive a the answer. All they needed to know was how many kilograms were in a liter. Someone said 1.77, and they calculated the value they needed. However, the conversion of 1.77 was not Kilograms per liter, but pounds per liter. The actual value it .803. They were off by more than 50%. This problem would have been avoided if they had kept track of the units during the conversion. That is why it is always important to keep track of the units.